What Are the Principles of Graphic Design?

Graphic design is a powerful tool used to create visual and interactive experiences. It is a combination of art and technology, used to convey ideas and messages.

The principles of graphic design provide a framework for conveying these ideas in an effective, aesthetically pleasing way.

Hierarchy – Hierarchy is the order in which elements are arranged on the page to create visual impact. Establishing hierarchy helps create structure, focus attention, and convey importance of elements. Hierarchy can be created through size, color, typeface, position, texture and contrast.

Balance – Balance refers to the way elements are distributed across the page. Balance creates visual harmony and creates a feeling of stability within the design. There are two types of balance: symmetrical balance (where elements are evenly distributed) and asymmetrical balance (where elements are unevenly distributed).

Contrast – Contrast is used to draw attention to certain elements within a design by making them stand out from their surroundings. This can be achieved through color, size, shape or texture.

Proportion – Proportion refers to the relationship between different elements within a design. It is important that all elements have a pleasing relationship with each other in terms of size and scale.

Unity – Unity is about creating designs that look like they belong together. This can be achieved through repetition of colors, shapes or textures throughout the design.


The principles of graphic design provide a framework for creating visually appealing designs that effectively convey ideas and messages. By understanding these principles, designers can create aesthetically pleasing designs that engage viewers and communicate effectively.